All rights reserved. What websites do you recommend? Infectious mononucleosis (“mono”) is caused by an Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Have your symptoms been continuous or occasional? Epstein-Barr virus and infectious mononucleosis. Infectious mononucleosis is a clinical syndrome caused by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) that is particularly common in adolescents and children. Aronson MD, et al. While the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) no longer recommends the monospot test, many guidelines still encourage using this test to help i… Here's some information to help you get ready for your appointment and know what to expect from your doctor. "Mayo," "Mayo Clinic," "," "Mayo Clinic Healthy Living," and the triple-shield Mayo Clinic logo are trademarks of Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Infectious mononucleosis (IM) is usually a self-limiting infection, most often caused by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), which is a human herpes virus. Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. Aug. 16, 2018. Mayo Clinic Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Mayo Clinic School of Continuous Professional Development, Mayo Clinic School of Graduate Medical Education. This disease comprises three main manifestations, such as fever, adenopathy, and pharyngitis. To help you avoid the risk of rupturing your spleen, your doctor may suggest that you wait about one month before returning to vigorous activities, heavy lifting, roughhousing or contact sports. For mononucleosis, some basic questions to ask your doctor include: Don't hesitate to ask any other questions. The virus spreads through saliva, which is why it's sometimes called "kissing disease." Infectious mononucleosis differential diagnosis, treatment options, and images at Epocrates Online, the leading provider of drug and disease decision support tools. Accessed Oct. 26, 2015. Reye's syndrome information page. Though aspirin is approved for use in children older than age 3, children and teenagers recovering from chickenpox or flu-like symptoms should never take aspirin. Other viruses can also cause mononucleosis. Recent advances in the understanding of infectious mononucleosis: are prospects improved for treatment or control? Accessed Oct. 26, 2015. The classic symptoms of this illness tend to occur more frequently among teenagers, especially those 15 to 17 years old, and in adults in their 20s. Antibiotics don't work against viral infections such as mono. There's no specific therapy available to treat infectious mononucleosis. Epstein-Barr virus infection. If you have mononucleosis, you don't necessarily need to be quarantined. Rupture of the spleen results in severe bleeding and is a medical emergency. The diagnosis is made by accurate assessment of clinical, hematologic and serologic manifestations of the illness. Infectious mononucleosis; an analysis of 100 cases with particular attention to diagnosis, liver function tests and treatment of selected cases with prednisone. In some cases, your child’s doctor may also order tests to confirm a diagnosis, including a white blood cell count, heterophile antibody test or monospot test. Patient’s description of sore throat, the main symptom of streptococcal pharyngitis, along with fever and swollen lymph nodes provide reason for this differential diagnosis. Any use of this site constitutes your agreement to the Terms and Conditions and Privacy Policy linked below. The more rest you get, the sooner you should recover. But plan on staying home from school and other activities until you're feeling better. Infectious mononucleosis is an infection usually caused by the Epstein-Barr virus. This content does not have an Arabic version. Check out these best-sellers and special offers on books and newsletters from Mayo Clinic. However, approximately 10% of those with IM are not acutely infected with EBV and many of these have symptoms attributable to … Are there any medications I need to avoid? When can I return to strenuous activities and contact sports? However, mononucleosis isn't as contagious as some infections, such as the common cold.You're most likely to get mononucleosis with all th… Most people are infected by the virus as children, when the disease produces few or no symptoms. It typically occurs in teenagers, but you can get it … This infectious disease can be spread by saliva, and the incubation period for mono is four to eight weeks. Infectious mononucleosis, or "mono", is an infection usually caused by the Epstein-Barr virus. Severe complications, including airway obstruction, splenic rupture, and neurologic syndromes, occasionally occur. Mononucleosis is an infectious illness that’s usually caused by the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Accessed Oct. 26, 2015. © 1998-2020 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research (MFMER). College students should also contact the campus student health center staff for assistance or treatment, if necessary. Infectious mononucleosis. Am J Med Sci . For some people, … Besides getting plenty of rest, these steps can help relieve symptoms of mononucleosis: Take an over-the-counter pain reliever. Infectious mononucleosis may begin slowly with fatigue, a general ill feeling, headache, and sore throat. Advertising revenue supports our not-for-profit mission. It’s most common in teens and young adults. The causative agent of infectious mononucleosis is "Epstein-Barr virus"(known as EBV or human herpes virus 4 [HHV-4]). Pathophysiology and clinical presentation – correct diagnosis. Patients presenting with fever and swollen lymph glands with complaints of sore throat and recent fatigue provide rationale for this differential diagnosis. The sore throat slowly gets worse. What, if anything, appears to worsen your symptoms? Most signs and symptoms of mononucleosis ease within a few weeks, but it may be two to three months before you feel completely normal. National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. Both EBV and CMV are members of the herpes virus family: In the U.S., most adults between 35 and 40 years old have been infected with the Epstein-Barr virus. The diagnosis of infectious mononucleosis (mono) is usually made based on the symptoms, findings in a physical examination, and blood tests. Neither text, nor links to other websites, is reviewed or endorsed by The Ohio State University. Allow me to break this a little. IM typically manifests in adolescents and young adults as a febrile illness with sore throat and enlarged lymph nodes. (Kane, K.S.,  Ryder, J.B., Johnson, R.A., Braden, H.P., & Stratigos, 2009). Take them only to relieve pain or a fever. If you suspect you have mononucleosis, see your family doctor. Mono, or infectious mononucleosis, refers to a group of symptoms usually caused by the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Have you been exposed to anyone with mononucleosis? Preparing a list of questions will help you make the most of your time with your doctor. Infectious mononucleosis (called \"mono\" for short) is caused by the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), a virus that affects nearly everybody at some point. Your tonsils become swollen and develop a whitish-yellow covering. Interpretation of EBV Antibody Tests. Mononucleosis and Epstein-Barr: What's the connection? Fever is an elevation of the body temperature above 101.3 °F. I have other health conditions. This content does not have an English version. How long should I stay home? Infectious mononucleosis should be suspected in patients with typical symptoms and signs. Mayo Clinic is a not-for-profit organization. Fever; Sore throat; Swollen lymph glands Children and teens can have the virus for 4 to 7 weeks before symptoms show up. Symptoms of mono include. 1958 Oct. 236(4):447-59 passim. Infectious Diseases A-Z: When a kiss is more than a kiss, Book: Mayo Clinic Family Health Book, 5th Edition, Newsletter: Mayo Clinic Health Letter — Digital Edition, FREE book offer – Mayo Clinic Health Letter. For young people, having mononucleosis will mean some missed activities — classes, team practices and parties. Use caution when giving aspirin to children or teenagers. How can I best manage them together? These medicines have no antiviral properties. Mono occurs most often in teens and young adults. Infectious mononucleosis, also known as glandular fever, can emerge as a result of infection with EBV, or herpes virus 4. Students need to let their schools know they are recovering from mononucleosis and may need special considerations to keep up with their work. Accessed Oct. 26, 2015. He or she will look for signs such as swollen lymph nodes, tonsils, liver or spleen, and consider how these signs relate to the symptoms you describe. There's no specific therapy available to treat infectious mononucleosis. Patients presenting with fever and swollen lymph glands with complaints of sore throat and recent fatigue provide rationale for this differential diagnosis. In young adults, the disease often results in fever, sore throat, enlarged lymph nodes in the neck, and tiredness. Steckelberg JM (expert opinion). Infectious mononucleosis. Infectious mononucleosis (IM) is a viral syndrome resulting from an acute infection with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), commonly known as, Mono or Glandular fever or Kissing disease. Using contaminated items, such as … Mononucleosis can last weeks, keeping you at home as you recover. Fatigue may persist weeks or months. Toxoplasma gondii is the result due to an infection from the Toxoplasma gondii parasite, which is one of the world’s most common parasites. Your doctor is likely to ask you a number of questions, including: Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is, as its name well says, a virus and the source of infectious mononucleosis. This site complies with the HONcode standard for trustworthy health information: verify here. The patient exhibited with swollen lymph nodes, fever, and fatigue which are the central symptoms seen with a Toxoplasma gondii infection diagnosis. Mononucleosis, also called mono or the kissing disease, is an infection caused by the Epstein-Barr virus. Clinical manifestations and treatment of Epstein-Barr virus infection. Aronson MD, et al. AskMayoExpert. (Contopoulos-Ioannidis, D.G., Maldonado, Y., & Montoya, J.G., 2013), If you have trouble accessing this page and need to request an alternate format, contact By 40 years of age, 90% of individuals are infected. The lymph nodes in the neck are frequently swollen and painful (NIH PubMed Health, 2012). Most Americans have had an EBV infection by age 40 years. Without a doubt, you'll need to take it easy for a while. Your doctor may suspect mononucleosis based on your signs and symptoms, how long they've lasted and a physical examination. Mononucleosis is not considered a serious illness, but its symptoms may be severe enough to prevent a person from engaging in normal activities for several weeks. It’s also called mono or “the kissing disease.” You … You may take over-the-counter pain relievers to treat a fever or sore throat. You may take over-the-counter pain relievers to treat a fever or sore throat. Do I need to stay home from work or school? A single copy of these materials may be reprinted for noncommercial personal use only. The most common are: 1. What are the likeliest causes of my symptoms or condition? Symptoms may develop slowly and may not all occur at the same time.These symptoms include: 1. extreme fatigue 2. fever 3. sore throat 4. head and body aches 5. swollen lymph nodes in the neck and armpits 6. swollen liver or spleen or both 7. rashEnlarged spleen and a swollen liver are less common symptoms. The sore throat slowly gets worse. Many people are already immune to the Epstein-Barr virus because of exposure as children. See our safe care and visitor guidelines, plus trusted coronavirus information. EBV antibody tests are not usually needed to diagnose infectious mononucleosis. Abstract Infectious mononucleosis is caused by the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and most commonly affects young adults from 15 to 35 years of age. Antibiotics don't work against viral infections such as mono. Exudative pharyngitis, anterior cervical lymphadenopathy, and fever may be clinically indistinguishable from those caused by group A beta-hemolytic streptococci. Make a donation. It's also called the \"kissing disease\" because kissing is a common method of transmission.Before 5 years of age, 50% of individuals are infected by EBV. Mononucleosis, also known as \"mono,\" is an infectious disease that is usually caused by the Epstein-Barr virus (a herpes virus). At best, the Monospot test may indicate that a person has a typical case of infectious mononucleosis, but does not confirm the presence of EBV infection. Typical symptoms of infectious mononucleosis usually appear four to six weeks after you get infected with EBV.

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